It is removed in the former USSR by crossing of the local cattle divorced in different zones with Dutch, black and motley Swedish and other breeds of a similar origin. Color black and motley. In breed some groups and the types differing with eksteryerny features, a yield of milk, zhirnomolochnost are formed. Breed in northwest regions of Russia, in Ukraine, in Belorusi, the Baltic states, in the Urals, in the Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Far East gets divorced.
The black and motley cattle of the Central regions of Russia is formed by crossing of the Dutch cattle with local holmogorsky and Yaroslavl. Hybrids of shvitsky and simmentalsky breeds were partially used. Animals large (manufacturing bulls have live weight of 900-1000 kg, cows - 550-600 kg), with high dairy efficiency (an average annual yield of milk about 4000 kg, in the plemkhozakh - to 6000 kg, but concede to other groups on fat content of milk (3,6-3,7%).
The black and motley cattle of the Urals is created generally by crossing of the Nizhny Tagil breed from ostfriza and partially with black and motley cattle of the Baltic states. An average annual yield of milk - 3700-3800 kg, in the plemkhozakh - 5500 kg, fat content of milk of 3,8-4,0%.
The black and motley cattle of Siberia is created by crossing of local Siberian cattle with the ostfrizsky. Animals less large. On efficiency concede to other groups (an average annual yield of milk - over 3500, in the plemkhozakh - to 5000 kg, fat content of milk - 3,7-3,9%) a little. From a cow in a year in a stud farm of "Irmen" of the Novosibirsk region it is obtained on 7412 kg of milk, in a stud farm of an uchkhoz of NGAU "Tulinskoye" – 7547 kg.
Meat qualities of breed satisfactory. At intensive cultivation average daily prirosta of young growth - 800-1000 g. By 15-16 months bull-calves on sagination reach live weight of 420-480 kg. A lethal exit - 54-56%.
For improvement of the constitution of animals and increase of dairy efficiency in farms bulls of golshtinsky breed are used.
The black and motley cattle had very limited distribution in Russia till 1917 and only with its acceptance as planned breed in 1925 its distribution in the territory of the USSR begins.
In 1930-1932 to the Soviet Union the large number of black and motley cattle from Germany, Holland, and also cattle of the Dutch origin from Baltic which was placed in breeding farms the central and northwest regions, the Urals, Siberia and other regions was delivered. This cattle was parted in purity, and also used for crossing with the animals of different breeds divorced in certain regions.
As a result of long breeding work, under the influence of conditions of feeding, the contents and heredity of initial breeds with which crossing in the big territory of the country was carried out, the massif of non-uniform black and motley cattle which in 1959 was approved as black and motley breed was created.
For last period in work with black and motley breed of cattle it is possible to allocate the next periods.
I period (1930-1940gg.). Generally absorbing crossing of a local livestock with the black and motley bulls delivered from other countries was applied.
II period (1940-1945). In kontse1940g. to the country 24 bulls of the German and Swedish origin who were placed in the Siberian farms "Omsk", "October", "May Day", and also in the European part of the country in farms "Vrachev of Gorky", "Dairy", "Torosovo" were delivered. The delivered bulls were used on a uterine livestock which origin is connected with the producers imported from Germany and Baltic in 1930-1938. At this time already started using cultivation of the received hybrids "in themselves".
III period (1945-1975). By this time the number of black and motley cattle considerably increased. After 1945 the western areas of the country affected by military operations began to arrive producers from Siberia and Baltic, import of bulls and cows from Sweden was carried out a little later. By 1959 populations Central Russian, Siberian, Ural, etc. which were integrated therefore domestic breed of black and motley cattle was created were distinguished from the big massif of domestic black and motley cattle. During the period from 1955 to 1975 the livestock of black and motley breed was replenished with import of animals from the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Poland.
The IV period (since 1975 to the present). At the beginning of this period in the USSR started delivering producers, uterine material and a spermoproduktion from SShAI of Canada. Since the beginning of the 1980th import of breeding material from these countries significantly increased and proceeds in the present. However it should be noted that from the USA and Canada to Russia generally deliver a spermoproduktion whereas their Holland, Denmark and Germany still import both a spermoproduktion, and uterine material. Therefore now the domestic black and motley cattle is presented by generally golshtinizirovanny animals.
The constitution of black and motley cattle strong, an exterior and type of a constitution characteristic for dairy cattle. Animals differ in good health and adaptability to various climatic zones. Cows usually large, live weight of 500-550 kg, in breeding plants and loud-speakers of 550-650 kg, with a little extended, it is proportional the developed trunk (slanting length of a trunk makes 158-162 cm), deep (70-75 cm) average width a breast, a wide waist, a back and a sacrum. Belly voluminous, udder big, generally roundish and bowl-shaped form. In process of increase in a krovnost on golshtina the share of animals with a bowl-shaped form of an udder increases. Extremities are put directly. Color black and motley, animals of red and motley color occasionally meet.
Because of distinction of properties of initial cattle, an environment, level of breeding work in breed some groups and the types differing on eksteryerny features, a yield of milk, zhirnomolochnost were formed.
The black and motley cattle of the central regions of the Russian Federation which was created by crossing of the Dutch and German black and motley cattle with local, holmogorsky, Yaroslavl and hybrids of other breeds, though is improved with use of a gene pool of golshtinsky breed, has the characteristic differences from other populations. Animals large (cows weigh 550-650 kg, bulls - to 900-1000 kg and more), with high dairy efficiency (in the best breeding farms the yield of milk makes 7000-8000 kg of milk with fat content of 3,6-3,7% and protein content of 3,0-3,2%. Now in the central Russia some intra pedigree types are created: "Moscow" (2003), "Nepetsinsky" (2003), "Barybinsky" (2004).
The black and motley cattle of the Urals was created generally by crossing of the Nizhny Tagil breed from ostfriza and partially with black and motley cattle of Baltic. Now it is also improved with use of a gene pool of golshtin. In a zone of the Urals in 2002 the new intra pedigree type of black and motley cattle "Ural" which is created by method of reproductive crossing the golshtinskikh of bulls with cows of black and motley breed is created. At animals a little facilitated dry type of the constitution, a constitution harmonious. Color of animals black with the small, or large white marks which are chaotically located on all trunk. The yield of milk in breeding farms exceeds 5500 kg, fat content of milk - 3,9-4,0%.
The black and motley cattle of Siberia was created by crossing of local Siberian cattle with Dutch, animals large. The live mass of cows - 500-560 kg. Dairy efficiency in breeding plants - about 6000 kg, in the best farms - more than 8000 kg of milk, fat content of milk makes 3,7-3,9%, protein content - 3,2%.
It is necessary to tell that with growth of a share of genes (krovnost) on golshtinsky breed eksteryerny features and level of dairy efficiency become more similar in various zones and regions of Russia. At black and motley cattle of all zones of the country the dairy type of addition is well expressed. Animals possess the strong constitution and characteristic black and motley color. In a zone of Siberia intra pedigree types of black and motley cattle are created in recent years: "Irmensky" (2000), "Priobsky" (2005) having high dairy efficiency and high adaptation qualities to the Siberian conditions.
In commodity herds receive 3000-3500 kg of milk from cows. Such level of efficiency is caused by influence not of hereditary, but environmental factors.
In the best breeding farms yields of milk reach 8000-9000 kg of milk (JSC PZ Leninsky put, JSC PZ Grazhdansky, JSC PZ Petrovsky, JSC PZ Agro-Balt, JSC PZ Rabititsy of the Leningrad region, SPK collective farm "Petrovsky" of the Moscow region, JSC agrofirma «omsky bekon" of the Omsk region). The most highly productive population of modern black and motley cattle is in the Leningrad region, efficiency of animals makes more than 6000 kg of milk. In this area new highly productive intra pedigree types of black and motley cattle "Leningrad" (2003), "Petrovsky" (1993), "Lesnovsky" (1993) with efficiency level more than 8000 kg of milk are created.
Korovy-rekordistki give for a lactation on 15 000-18 000 kg of milk. 18 086 kg of milk by fat content of 4,15% are received from a cow of the Russian 72 (a stud farm "Russia" of Chelyabinsk region) for the IV lactation, the cow Ancient 1227 black and motley breeds (JSC Omsky bekon of the Omsk region) in 305 days of the IV lactation gave 17 649 kg of milk fat content of 3,72%, from a cow of Secret 181 (a stud farm "A Lenin way" of the Leningrad region) for the V lactation obtained 18 406 kg of milk fat content of 3,4%.
In general the black and motley cattle has an average zhirnomolochnost of 3,5-3,8% and protein content of 3,0-3,2%. A little zhirnomolochny and belkovomolochny black and motley cattle of the Urals and Siberia.
The live mass of modern black and motley cattle at the birth makes: girls - 35-37 kg, bull-calves - 38-42 kg. Precocity of animals increased: girls reach live weight of 380-400 kg to 16-month age therefore the age of their first insemination and, as a result, the first otel for 2-4 months decreased. Meat qualities of cattle the satisfactory. At intensive cultivation average daily prirosta of live mass of 800-1000 g, to 15-16-month age animals weigh 420-480 kg. The lethal exit makes 50-55%.
As it was already noted, to the middle of the 1970th improvement of cattle of black and motley breed was carried out both at thoroughbred cultivation, and when crossing with the Dutch breed. Limited potential of a molochnost, considerable percent of cows with an unsatisfactory form of an udder and low intensity of a molokovyvedeniye - 1,2-1,4 kg/min. were the main shortcomings of breed. Use of the Dutch bulls didn't give the chance to correct these shortcomings. From 1980th the program of improvement of black and motley breed by crossing with golshtinsky manufacturing bulls was accepted. Work is carried out so far.
As a result of long selection at cows the udder form considerably improved, intensity of a molokovyvedeniye increased to 2-2,5 kg/min. The livestock of black and motley cattle meeting the modern requirements is created high-blood on golshtinsky breed. Now in Russia about 53% of a livestock of dairy cattle are the share of black and motley breed.
Work on formation of genealogical structure of breed is conducted. The main part of genealogical lines belongs to golshtinsky breed: Montvik Chifteyn 95679, Reflekshn Sovering 198998, Hung Aydial 0933122 and Siling Traydzhun of Rokit 0252803. At the same time in many farms it is possible to meet lines of the Dutch root: Nicko 31652, Rudolf Yang 34558, Annas Adema 30587, Hiltyes Adema 37910, Rutiyes Eduarda 2316646, Bontiyes Ademy 24674, Rikusa 25415 and domestic origin of Poseidon of UG-54, Pärt Bratk 2689/30, Lukomor 364, etc.
High dairy efficiency of cattle demanded revision of traditional views of technology of the contents, milking, on type and quality of feeding of highly productive cows. Black and motley breed on the number of cattle wins first place and gets divorced in the majority of regions of the country.
Material from the site http://lenoblconsult .ru/
Plan of balance of the movement of a livestock for gender and age groups
|Gender and age groups||In the begining||At the end||average annual number, heads||Gain of live weight, tons||Slaughter in total, heads||Slaughter in total, tons|
|heads||live weight, tons||heads||live weight, tons|
|Heifers||0,00||0,00||1 160,33||597,18||1 186,72||27,06||19,83||8,73|
|Calfs fem 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00|
|Calfs fem 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||398,33||27,25||9,92||1,23|
|Calfs fem 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||580,17||108,42||193,39||16,76||0,00||0,00|
|Calfs fem 12-18m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00|
|Calfs male 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00|
|Calfs male 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00|
|Calfs male 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00|
|Calfs male 12-18m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00|
|In total||0,00||0,00||1 740,50||705,60||1 778,44||71,06||29,75||9,96|
|Heifers||1 160,33||597,18||235,52||121,20||1 386,19||10,54||19,18||8,44|
|Calfs fem 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||924,40||18,27||7,67||0,35|
|Calfs fem 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||1 331,48||30,36||11,03||1,37|
|Calfs fem 6-12m.||580,17||108,42||0,00||0,00||5 308,90||153,32||48,29||11,64|
|Calfs fem 12-18m.||0,00||0,00||385,79||134,89||3 473,99||79,21||263,83||133,59|
|Calfs male 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||924,40||22,03||7,67||3,84|
|Calfs male 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||1 331,48||31,73||11,03||4,85|
|Calfs male 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||2 473,20||63,53||20,47||0,92|
|Calfs male 12-18m.||0,00||0,00||385,79||138,01||385,79||11,86||0,00||0,00|
|In total||1 740,50||705,60||1 955,51||896,76||2 390,84||420,84||475,97||208,38|
|Calfs fem 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||933,84||18,64||7,83||0,35|
|Calfs fem 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||1 331,48||30,97||11,26||1,40|
|Calfs fem 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||4 733,56||72,88||20,88||5,03|
|Calfs fem 12-18m.||385,79||134,89||393,63||136,51||3 856,56||51,16||255,79||129,55|
|Calfs male 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||933,84||22,48||7,83||3,91|
|Calfs male 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||1 331,48||32,38||11,26||4,95|
|Calfs male 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||2 473,20||64,82||20,88||0,94|
|Calfs male 12-18m.||385,79||138,01||393,63||140,82||768,37||68,96||367,29||179,83|
|In total||1 955,51||896,76||1 855,76||842,08||2 295,80||369,75||816,48||382,15|
|Calfs fem 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||943,19||16,82||7,06||0,32|
|Calfs fem 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||1 331,48||27,95||10,16||1,26|
|Calfs fem 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||4 167,82||65,77||18,85||4,54|
|Calfs fem 12-18m.||393,63||136,51||355,25||123,20||4 232,76||51,14||157,12||79,53|
|Calfs male 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||943,19||20,29||7,06||3,53|
|Calfs male 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||1 331,48||29,22||10,16||4,47|
|Calfs male 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||2 473,20||58,50||18,85||0,85|
|Calfs male 12-18m.||393,63||140,82||355,25||127,09||1 144,56||68,94||374,75||183,48|
|In total||1 855,76||842,08||1 780,60||814,42||2 184,80||350,49||712,03||331,26|
|Calfs fem 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||71,04||16,85||7,07||0,32|
|Calfs fem 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||102,33||28,00||10,18||1,26|
|Calfs fem 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||190,07||65,87||18,87||4,55|
|Calfs fem 12-18m.||355,25||123,20||355,79||123,39||171,63||46,96||122,05||61,76|
|Calfs male 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||71,04||20,32||7,07||3,54|
|Calfs male 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||102,33||29,27||10,18||4,48|
|Calfs male 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||190,07||58,59||18,87||0,85|
|Calfs male 12-18m.||355,25||127,09||355,79||127,28||171,63||63,30||338,21||165,59|
|In total||1 780,60||814,42||2 092,17||973,42||2 164,94||342,82||640,61||295,57|
|Cows||874,64||463,56||1 128,44||598,07||1 187,77||0,00||117,72||58,86|
|Calfs fem 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||91,66||21,73||9,13||0,41|
|Calfs fem 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||132,02||36,12||13,13||1,63|
|Calfs fem 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||245,22||84,98||24,35||5,87|
|Calfs fem 12-18m.||355,79||123,39||459,03||159,19||180,44||49,37||338,72||171,61|
|Calfs male 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||91,66||26,21||9,13||4,56|
|Calfs male 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||132,02||37,76||13,13||5,78|
|Calfs male 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||245,22||75,59||24,35||1,10|
|Calfs male 12-18m.||355,79||127,28||459,03||164,21||180,44||66,55||338,72||165,84|
|In total||2 092,17||973,42||2 098,93||948,46||2 532,64||402,53||896,74||419,33|
|Cows||1 128,44||598,07||965,19||511,55||1 062,95||0,00||119,83||59,92|
|Calfs fem 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||78,40||20,15||9,13||0,41|
|Calfs fem 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||112,92||36,12||13,13||1,63|
|Calfs fem 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||209,75||84,98||24,35||5,87|
|Calfs fem 12-18m.||459,03||159,19||392,62||136,16||216,17||51,70||339,58||172,04|
|Calfs male 0-3m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||78,40||24,31||9,13||4,56|
|Calfs male 3-6m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||112,92||37,76||13,13||5,78|
|Calfs male 6-12m.||0,00||0,00||0,00||0,00||209,75||75,59||24,35||1,10|
|Calfs male 12-18m.||459,03||164,21||392,62||140,45||216,17||69,70||339,58||165,95|
|In total||2 098,93||948,46||1 853,77||841,35||2 365,65||401,11||896,80||419,27|